1939 Season- Seamheads Negro Leagues Database

1939 Season


1938 / 1940

Top Hitter


Josh
Gibson

Top Pitcher


Hilton
Smith

Leaders

Runs Batted In

# Player Team RBI
1
EAS/HG
56
2
EAS/HG
52
3
KCM
45
4
KCM/WES
45
5
EAS/PS
37
6
EAS/NE
34
7
BEG/EAS
31
8
PS
30
9
KCM/WES
30
10
EAS/NE
30

WHIP

# Player Team WHIP
1
KCM
0.89
2
SL3
0.96
3
EAS/HG
0.98
4
KCM/WES
0.99
5
KCM
1.00
6
WES/MRS
1.01
7
NE
1.05
8
MRS
1.06
9
WES/TC
1.09
10
KCM
1.11


Wins Above Replacement


Bats:


Throws:



Teams
# Team Lg
1
MULT
1548
336.1
16.0
8.9
0.0
7.1
-0.1
2
1963
470.2
15.7
5.9
0.0
9.8
0.0
3
MULT
1327
292.0
10.9
5.6
0.0
5.3
0.0
4
1376
309.1
8.7
3.6
0.0
5.1
0.0
5
NAL
851
197.0
6.6
2.8
0.0
3.8
0.0
6
1032
231.0
4.9
3.8
0.0
1.3
-0.1
7
NAL
1282
308.2
4.4
2.9
0.0
1.5
0.0
8
1907
444.1
4.0
2.2
0.0
1.8
0.0
9
NN2
1200
247.1
3.7
1.3
0.0
2.3
0.0
10
NAL
756
183.1
1.5
0.3
0.0
1.2
0.0
11
584
134.2
1.3
1.2
0.0
0.1
0.0
12
NAL
715
163.0
1.0
3.2
0.0
-2.2
0.0
13
EWA
71
17.0
0.6
0.4
0.0
0.1
0.0
14
EWA
76
17.0
0.5
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.0
15
NN2
646
138.2
0.1
-0.9
0.0
1.0
0.0
15
6
15334
3490.1
79.9
41.5
0.1
38.6
-0.2



Players
# Team Pos
1
P
53
111.2
3.7
0.8
0.0
3.0
0.0
2
P
37
65.0
3.1
0.1
0.0
3.0
0.0
3
P
64
131.2
3.0
-0.1
0.0
3.2
0.0
4
C
161
3.0
2.9
0.0
0.0
0.1
5
KCM
P
32
90.2
2.8
-0.2
0.0
2.9
0.0
6
1B
169
2.6
2.7
0.0
0.0
-0.2
7
PS
P
56
115.1
2.4
-0.3
0.0
2.7
0.0
8
NE
P
28
57.0
2.3
0.1
0.0
2.1
0.0
9
KCM
LF
193
2.2
2.4
0.0
0.0
-0.2
10
P
30
67.2
2.1
-0.1
0.0
2.2
0.0
11
CF
227
2.1
2.2
0.0
0.0
-0.1
12
P
45
99.0
2.1
0.3
0.0
1.8
0.0
13
KCM
P
39
85.0
2.1
0.0
0.0
2.1
0.0
14
P
24
56.0
2.1
-0.1
0.0
2.1
0.0
15
P
28
61.0
1.9
0.1
0.0
1.8
0.0
16
SS
213
1.9
1.7
-0.1
0.0
0.3
17
NYC
P
31
69.1
1.8
-0.2
0.0
2.0
0.0
18
P
30
63.1
1.8
-0.1
0.0
1.9
0.0
19
CBR
P
36
92.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.0
20
HG
P
36
80.2
1.6
0.1
0.0
1.6
0.0
21
2B
142
1.6
1.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
22
1B
146
1.5
1.5
0.1
0.0
-0.2
23
P
32
60.1
1.5
-0.1
0.0
1.6
0.0
24
BEG
P
30
63.0
1.5
-0.2
0.0
1.7
0.0
25
BEG
LF
132
1.4
1.5
0.0
0.0
-0.2
26
KCM
P
14
32.2
1.4
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.0
27
RF
148
1.4
1.6
-0.1
0.0
-0.1
28
NBY
P
14
30.2
1.3
-0.1
0.0
1.4
0.0
29
CBR
C
91
1.3
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
30
LF
129
1.3
1.3
0.1
0.0
-0.1
31
2B
201
1.2
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
32
RF
150
1.2
1.4
0.0
0.0
-0.1
33
NE
P
17
38.0
1.2
0.0
0.0
1.2
0.0
34
HG
2B
181
1.1
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
35
RF
143
1.1
1.3
0.0
0.0
-0.2
36
NE
LF
131
9.0
1.1
1.1
0.0
0.2
-0.1
37
CAG
CF
135
1.1
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
38
PS
SS
220
1.1
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.3
39
HG
P
28
54.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
40
SL3
CF
110
1.0
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
41
IAB
P
23
29.0
1.0
0.1
0.0
0.9
0.0
42
1B
145
0.9
1.0
0.0
0.0
-0.2
43
CAG
1B
115
0.8
0.9
0.0
0.0
-0.1
44
CAG
P
11
38.2
0.8
-0.1
0.0
0.9
0.0
45
CF
84
0.8
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
46
2B
104
0.8
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
47
HG
CF
91
80.0
0.7
-0.1
0.0
0.9
-0.1
48
NBY
3B
101
0.7
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.1
49
P
38
39.1
0.7
-0.1
0.0
0.8
0.0
50
SL3
SS
81
0.7
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
51
LF
159
0.7
0.8
0.0
0.0
-0.2
52
KCM
3B
191
0.7
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
53
PS
CF
202
0.7
0.7
0.0
0.0
-0.1
54
TC
2B
65
0.7
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
55
3B
95
0.7
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
56
P
43
73.2
0.6
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.0
57
PS
3B
146
0.6
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
58
CAG
P
16
41.2
0.6
-0.1
0.0
0.7
0.0
59
HG/TC
C
67
0.6
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
60
NBY
3B
75
5.1
0.6
0.6
0.0
-0.1
0.0
61
IAB
2B
63
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
62
SL3
P
29
60.0
0.5
0.1
0.0
0.4
0.0
63
HG
3B
151
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
64
3B
156
0.5
0.4
0.1
0.0
0.1
65
NYC
3B
54
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
66
BEG
CF
160
0.5
0.6
0.0
0.0
-0.1
67
MRS
P
11
28.1
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
68
P
11
23.2
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
69
HG
LF
63
37.1
0.5
0.4
0.0
0.2
-0.1
70
C
41
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
71
MRS
2B
83
0.5
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
72
SL3
P
9
24.0
0.5
-0.1
0.0
0.5
0.0
73
C
72
0.5
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
74
SS
133
0.5
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
75
BEG
3B
148
0.5
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
76
SS
88
0.5
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
77
KCM
P
19
48.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
78
SL3
LF
24
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
79
CAG
RF
119
0.4
0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.1
80
CAG
P
3
7.1
0.4
0.1
0.0
0.4
0.0
81
TC/NE
P
11
24.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
82
CBR
2B
88
0.4
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
83
NYC
P
14
38.1
0.4
-0.1
0.0
0.5
0.0
84
LF
164
0.4
0.6
0.0
0.0
-0.2
85
SS
168
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
86
NBY
P
33
77.1
0.3
-0.2
0.0
0.6
0.0
87
NYC
LF
61
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.1
88
IAB
LF
56
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.1
89
C
87
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
90
CAG
SS
96
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
91
SL3
1B
104
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.1
92
KCM
C
39
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
93
CBR
P
18
11.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
94
PS
P
23
45.2
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
95
PS
P
2
8.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
96
IAB
P
22
48.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
97
KCM
C
139
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
98
NYC
LF
5
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
99
TC
3B
32
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
100
NBY
SS
118
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
101
NE
P
1
2.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
102
CAG
LF
129
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.1
103
NYC
C
52
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
104
NE
3B
121
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
105
KCM
P
11
34.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
106
CAG
CF
3
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
107
TC
1B
53
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.1
108
CBR
LF
22
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
109
RF
85
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.1
110
HG
C
9
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
111
KCM
P
2
4.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
112
NBY
CF
65
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
113
KCM
P
2.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
114
NBY
1B
125
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.1
115
TC
SS
41
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
116
SL3
P
2
5.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
117
MULT
2B
51
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
118
CAG
P
3.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
119
IAB
2B
8
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
120
CAG
LF
40
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
121
SL3
P
9
18.2
0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
122
CBR
LF
2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
123
2B
113
0.1
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.1
124
NBY
C
3
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
125
IAB
C
41
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
126
CBR
CF
89
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
127
IAB
LF
6
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
128
RF
232
0.1
0.4
-0.1
0.0
-0.2
129
SL3
SS
1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
130
BEG
SS
62
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
131
CBR
LF
7
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
132
P
21
46.2
0.0
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
133
IAB
LF
68
1.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
-0.1
-0.1
134
PS/HG
P
31
64.1
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
135
NBY
RF
102
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.1
136
CF
91
3.2
0.0
0.8
0.0
-0.7
-0.1
137
MRS
LF
29
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
138
NE
C
85
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
139
SS
32
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
140
CBR
RF
75
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
141
MRS
RF
9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
142
BEG
C
83
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
143
LF
21
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
144
CAG
SS
8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
145
LF
33
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
146
IAB
3B
7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
147
MRS
P
12
33.0
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
148
HG
C
11
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
149
NE
2B
11
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
150
IAB
3B
60
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
151
1B
164
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.2
152
NYC
SS
67
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
153
CAG
P
34
89.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
154
KCM
-
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
155
MULT
RF
72
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.1
156
MRS
LF
45
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
157
PS
C
79
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
158
KCM
RF
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
159
SL3
1B
9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
160
HG
RF
3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
161
BEG
SS
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
162
CAG
P
6
14.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
-0.1
0.0
163
CAG
-
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
164
CAG
-
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
165
NE
3B
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
166
SL3
-
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
167
IAB
-
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
168
NBY
-
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
169
NBY
LF
86
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
170
NE
P
18
35.2
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
171
MRS
LF
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
172
CAG
P
16
48.1
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
173
TC
3B
9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
174
CBR
-
2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
175
CAG
CF
13
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
176
HG
C
2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
177
TC
LF
58
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
178
TC
3B
16
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
179
BEG
P
13
30.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
180
CAG
1B
2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
181
BEG
3B
46
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
182
KCM
LF
2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
183
CBR
1B
81
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
184
BEG
LF
2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
185
MRS
SS
63
0.0
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
186
CAG
1B
7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
187
SL3
LF
4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
188
IAB
CF
5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
189
TC
2B
4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
190
TC
RF
4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
191
HG
SS
156
0.0
-0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
192
CBR
LF
4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
193
SL3
1B
76
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
194
BEG
RF
6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
195
HG
C
5
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
196
NYC
RF
63
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.1
197
SL3
P
20
51.0
-0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.1
0.0
198
NBY
C
8
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
199
TC/HG
CF
112
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
200
KCM
P
0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
0.0
201
NE
2B
155
-0.1
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
202
CBR
SS
32
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
203
C
81
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
204
MRS
3B
73
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
205
CBR
RF
8
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
206
P
5
5.1
-0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.2
0.0
207
MRS
RF
52
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.1
208
PS
P
9
31.2
-0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
0.0
209
CAG
2B
13
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
210
MRS
P
9
23.0
-0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.2
0.0
211
SL3
SS
35
-0.1
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
212
IAB
P
9
22.0
-0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.3
0.0
213
NE
LF
9
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
214
HG
CF
51
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
215
CBR
P
3
6.0
-0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
0.0
216
NE
CF
141
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
217
CF
52
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
218
CF
52
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
219
HG
3B
12
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
220
CBR
LF
19
-0.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
221
NE
P
10
22.1
-0.1
0.0
0.0
-0.1
0.0
222
CAG
SS
29
-0.1
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
223
CAG
P
38
51.2
-0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.3
0.0
224
KCM
P
12
25.1
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
-0.1
0.0
225
NYC
C
19
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
226
KCM
3B
78
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
227
SL3
C
33
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
228
C
67
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
229
1B
87
-0.2
-0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.1
230
NE
CF
24
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
231
CBR
P
3
9.0
-0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.2
0.0
232
PS
P
34
84.1
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
-0.1
0.0
233
TC
P
4
5.2
-0.2
0.1
0.0
-0.3
0.0
234
TC
LF
15
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
235
NYC
1B
51
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
236
NBY
2B
105
-0.2
-0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
237
NYC
2B
64
-0.2
-0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
238
NE
3B
19
-0.2
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
239
KCM
1B
190
-0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.2
240
SL3
3B
103
-0.2
-0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
241
P
6
14.0
-0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.2
0.0
242
C
116
-0.2
-0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
243
CBR
C
29
-0.2
-0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
244
IAB
P
3
8.1
-0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
245
SL3
P
1
1.0
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.2
0.0
246
MRS
P
2
6.1
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.2
0.0
247
CAG
P
6
14.2
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.2
0.0
248
MRS
P
1
3.0
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
249
NBY
C
91
-0.3
-0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
250
CAG
LF
52
-0.3
-0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.1
251
CBR
P
0.2
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
252
CBR
P
0.2
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
253
NYC
P
1
4.0
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
254
IAB
P
3
8.1
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
255
SL3
RF
116
-0.3
-0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.1
256
BEG
P
4
6.2
-0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
257
NYC
P
4
12.1
-0.4
0.1
0.0
-0.4
0.0
258
NBY
P
15
23.0
-0.4
0.1
0.0
-0.5
0.0
259
PS
P
22
49.2
-0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.4
0.0
260
PS
RF
111
-0.4
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.1
261
BEG
P
15
25.1
-0.4
0.1
0.0
-0.5
0.0
262
BEG
P
4
6.2
-0.4
0.1
0.0
-0.5
0.0
263
KCM
2B
205
-0.4
-0.6
0.0
0.0
0.2
264
RF
86
3.1
-0.4
0.5
0.0
-0.9
-0.1
265
MRS
P
8
18.1
-0.4
-0.1
0.0
-0.4
0.0
266
KCM
C
48
-0.4
-0.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
267
BEG
P
1
2.0
-0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.5
0.0
268
P
6
4.2
-0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.5
0.0
269
NBY
LF
74
-0.5
-0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.1
270
NE
P
11
26.2
-0.5
-0.1
0.0
-0.4
0.0
271
NYC
LF
44
-0.5
-0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
272
IAB
P
4
6.1
-0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.6
0.0
273
PS
RF
187
-0.5
-0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.1
274
NYC
1B
60
-0.6
-0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.1
275
KCM
P
9
22.2
-0.6
-0.1
0.0
-0.5
0.0
276
TC/PS
P
15
30.1
-0.6
0.0
0.0
-0.6
0.0
277
IAB
P
12
33.0
-0.6
0.0
0.0
-0.6
0.0
278
PS
1B
182
-0.6
-0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
279
NE/PS
C
74
-0.7
-0.8
0.0
0.0
0.1
280
TC
P
8
14.2
-0.7
0.0
0.0
-0.7
0.0
281
NYC
P
7
14.2
-0.8
0.0
0.0
-0.8
0.0
282
PS
P
27
32.1
-1.0
-0.2
0.0
-0.8
0.0

If you have any questions regarding Negro Leagues statistical or biographical data, please contact gary@seamheads.com..

All biographical data, copyright 2011-2018 Gary Ashwill.

Playing statistics for 1887-1922 and 1926-1938, as well as all Cuban League games (1902-1928) and Negro League vs. Major League games (1887-1944), copyright 2011-2018 Gary Ashwill.

Playing statistics for 1923 (except Negro League vs. Major League games), copyright 2011-2018 Patrick Rock.

Playing statistics for 1933 and 1943, copyright 2013-2018 Scott Simkus.

Playing statistics for 1924-1925, 1939-1942, and 1944-1946 Negro Leagues (not including Cuban League and Negro League vs. Major League games), copyright 2011-2018 Larry Lester, Wayne Stivers, Gary Ashwill.


Defensive Regression Analysis data used here was obtained with permission from Michael Humphreys, author of Wizardry

Win Shares are calculated using the formula in the book Win Shares by Bill James