September 25, 2017

Hardball Retrospective – General Manager Scorecard

September 30, 2015 by · Leave a Comment 

The following article represents the first of a three-part series focusing on the cumulative and average outcomes sustained by players drafted, signed or acquired via trades by every General Manager in Major League Baseball since 1950. My initial review of General Managers will be constrained to players selected in the Amateur Draft (and subsequently signed to their first MLB contract) along with individuals signed as amateur free agents. The second piece will concentrate on players exchanged in trades while the third will address free agent acquisitions.

In “Hardball Retrospective: Evaluating Scouting and Development Outcomes for the Modern-Era Franchises”, I placed every ballplayer in the modern era (from 1901-present) on their original team. Therefore, Ty Cobb is listed on the Tigers roster for the duration of his career while the Mets declare Tom Seaver and the Pirates claim Barry Bonds. I calculated revised standings for every season based entirely on the performance of each team’s “original” players. I discuss every team’s “original” players and seasons at length along with organizational performance with respect to the Amateur Draft (or First-Year Player Draft), amateur free agent signings and other methods of player acquisition.  Season standings, WAR and Win Shares totals for the “original” teams are compared against the “actual” team results to assess each franchise’s scouting, development and general management skills.

The General Manager Scorecard results from further research exploring the databases that I utilized while writing “Hardball Retrospective”. My findings include the career Win Shares and Wins Above Replacement totals for all players signed to their first Major League Baseball contract by every General Manager from 1950 through the 2013 season. I will provide outcomes calculated by the plate appearance (PA) and batters facing pitcher (BFP) totals. I have restricted the conclusions to the 1950-2013 timeframe in an effort to correspond with the entries in the Baseball America Executive Database. Furthermore, I have omitted all transactions except for the player’s initial MLB contract; the General Managers are not evaluated on trades, players drafted but not signed, etc.

“Hardball Retrospective” is available in digital format on Amazon, Barnes and Noble, GooglePlay, iTunes and KoboBooks. The paperback edition is available on Amazon, Barnes and Noble and CreateSpace. Supplemental Statistics, Charts and Graphs along with a discussion forum are offered at TuataraSoftware.com.

Don Daglow (Intellivision World Series Major League Baseball, Earl Weaver Baseball, Tony LaRussa Baseball) contributed the foreword for Hardball Retrospective. The foreword and preview of my book are accessible here.

Terminology

OWAR – Wins Above Replacement for players on “original” teams

OWS – Win Shares for players on “original” teams

OPW% – Pythagorean Won-Loss record for the “original” teams

WS/10K_PA_BFP – Win Shares per 10000 Plate Appearances + Batters Facing Pitcher

WAR/10K_PA_BFP – Wins Above Replacement per 10000 Plate Appearances + Batters Facing Pitcher

The General Manager Scorecard

1) Bill Wood             WS/10K_PA_BFP: 241.48   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 31.88

Houston prospered greatly during Bill Wood’s tenure with the ballclub. Wood restocked the farm system through the amateur draft, scoring hits with Luis E. Gonzalez and Kenny Lofton (1988), Todd Jones and Shane Reynolds (1989), Phil Nevin (1992) and Billy Wagner (1993). Amateur free agents such as Bobby Abreu (1990), Richard Hidalgo and Melvin Mora (1991) along with Carlos Guillen (1992) augmented the Astros’ offense. While Wood was replaced by Bob Watson in October 1993, the organization reaped the benefits of his acumen as the ballclub made 12 successive playoff appearances from 1997-2008. The “Original” Astros topped the National League OWAR leader board seven times while clinching the OWS title on six occasions in this stretch.

T2) Bobby Cox                WS/10K_PA_BFP: 225.93   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 26.03

Bobby Cox held the GM post in Atlanta from October 1985 through the 1990 campaign. Cox acquired Javy Lopez as amateur free agent in 1987 and purchased Vinny Castilla from Saltillo of the Mexican League in March of 1990. First-rounder Chipper Jones was the prize of Cox’s amateur draft selections in June, 1990. Other notable draftees under Cox include Kent Mercker (1986), Mike W. Stanton (1987), Steve Avery (1988) and Ryan Klesko (1990). Subsequently the “Original” Braves gained entry to the National League playoffs in 11 of the next 16 seasons.

T2) Hank Peters             WS/10K_PA_BFP: 217.15   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 26.33

Hank Peters displayed remarkable insight as a talent evaluator for the Kansas City Athletics, Baltimore Orioles and Cleveland Indians. In his lone season at the helm of the A’s, Peters secured Sal Bando, Rick Monday and Gene Tenace in the inaugural amateur draft of 1965. One decade later, Peters commence a twelve-year stint at the helm of the Orioles’ front office. He selected the “Iron Man” Cal Ripken Jr. and Mike Boddicker in the ’78 draft along with Steve Finley and David Segui in ’87. Highlights from 4 seasons with the Tribe include the acquisitions of Brian S. Giles and Jim Thome (1989) in conjunction with the first-round (13th overall) pick in the 1991 draft – Manny Ramirez. Bando, Monday and Tenace supplied significant contributions to the five consecutive playoff appearances for Oakland in the mid-1970’s. Ripken lifted the “Original” O’s to three successive pennants (1982-84) while the Indians played in eight postseasons out of eleven (1995-2005).

4) Walt Jocketty              WS/10K_PA_BFP: 213.12   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 27.88

Walt Jocketty logged 13 seasons as the General Manager of the Cardinals (October 1994 – October 2007). He’s occupied the same role for the Reds in April 2008. The 13th-round selection of Albert Pujols transcends the list of Jocketty’s acquisitions for St. Louis. Other Redbirds of note that were obtained during his administration include J.D. Drew, Dan Haren and Yadier Molina. Jocketty signed Reds’ flamethrower Aroldis Chapman as an amateur free agent in 2010. The “Original” Cardinals achieved seven playoff berths in a thirteen-year span (2001-2013).

5) Larry Himes                WS/10K_PA_BFP: 211.03   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 28.08

Larry Himes presided over four amateur drafts for the Chicago White Sox (1988-1990). His first-round selections: Jack McDowell (1987), Robin Ventura (1988), Frank E. Thomas (1989), Alex Fernandez (1990). Ray Durham (1990, 5th Round) accrued 238 Win Shares in his career. However, Himes was unable to replicate his draft-day mojo with the Cubbies. Kyle Farnsworth tops the Himes/Cubs list with 70 career Win Shares. The “Original” White Sox secured the American League pennant in 1991 along with two divisional titles in ’92 and ’96.

T6) Chub Feeney                       WS/10K_PA_BFP: 233.63   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 24.00

Chub Feeney directed the Giants’ front office for 24 years. Focusing on his outcomes from 1950 through 1968, Feeney outshines the competition. Feeney signed the crown jewel of his administration, Willie Mays, in 1950. The “Say Hey Kid” accumulated 639 Win Shares and 136 WAR, earned All-Star appearances in 20 successive seasons and blasted 660 round-trippers while setting the standard of defensive excellence in center field. He acquired future Hall of Famers Orlando Cepeda (1955), Willie McCovey (1955), Juan Marichal (1957) and Gaylord Perry (1958) as amateur free agents. Other distinguished ballplayers procured by Feeney include Felipe Alou, Bobby Bonds, Jose Cardenal and Bill White along with amateur draftees George Foster and Garry Maddox. The “Original” Giants reeled off seven consecutive pennants from 1962-68.

T6) Dick Wagner                        WS/10K_PA_BFP: 226.43   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 24.15

Dick Wagner earned high marks for his draft selections for the Reds (1978-1983) and the Astros (1986-87). Craig Biggio (1987) accrued 426 Win Shares and 54 WAR to top the list of Wagner’s draftees. Cincinnati improved significantly with a trio of outfielders selected in the early Eighties (Eric Davis, Paul O’Neill, Danny Tartabull) along with moundsmen Charlie Leibrandt and Jeff Montgomery. This quintet led the “Original” Reds to four pennants and two division titles from 1987 through 1995.

8) Gabe Paul                   WS/10K_PA_BFP: 214.78   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 23.39

Gabe Paul achieved executive status in the Cincinnati front office at the conclusion of the 1951 campaign. His career as a General Manager spanned four organizations across three decades. Eight ballplayers acquired by Paul recorded at least 300 Win Shares or 40 Wins Above Replacement during their careers including Pete Rose, Frank Robinson, Tony Perez, Vada Pinson, Buddy Bell, Dennis Eckersley, Tommy John and Luis Tiant. His GM scorecard is reinforced by the procurement of Tommie Agee, Leo Cardenas, Mike Cuellar, Curt Flood, Jim Maloney, Willie McGee, Claude Osteen and Cesar Tovar. The “Original” Reds notched six seasons atop the Senior Circuit leader boards in OWAR during the Sixties and collected two pennants with four division titles in an eight-year stretch covering 1969-1976.

9) Harding Peterson      WS/10K_PA_BFP: 208.07   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 24.28

Harding Peterson’s tenure as the GM of the Yankees lasted a mere eight months, yet he succeeded in signing amateur free agent Mariano Rivera while selecting Andy Pettitte and Jorge Posada in the 1990 draft. All contributed to the “Original” Yankees run of nine playoff appearances in 17 seasons from 1997-2013. Key players obtained in Peterson’s administration for the Pirates include Bobby Bonilla and Jay Buhner.

T10) Jack McKeon         WS/10K_PA_BFP: 213.09   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 23.07

“Trader” Jack McKeon asserts Hall of Famers Tony Gwynn and Roberto Alomar among his esteemed acquisitions. Both players topped the 350 Win Share mark and 50 WAR in their respective careers. McKeon held the Padres’ GM post throughout the Eighties and shared an affinity for talent procurement via amateur free agency (Alomar, Carlos Baerga, Benito Santiago, Jose Valentin) and the draft pool (Gwynn, Andy Benes, John Kruk and Kevin McReynolds). San Diego paced the National League in OWS three times in five seasons from 1988-1992 and made the playoffs in three successive campaigns (1994-96).

T10) Dick O’Connell      WS/10K_PA_BFP: 213.41   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 22.99

Dick O’Connell amassed a wealth of talent during two stints as General Manager for the Red Sox. In his first term in office, O’Connell inked deals with free agent amateurs Rico Petrocelli (1961) and George Scott (1962). Returning to the post in October 1965, he selected a string of future American League All-Stars in the amateur drafts including the trifecta of Cecil Cooper, Bill F. Lee and Ben Oglivie in 1968. Carlton Fisk (’67), Dwight Evans (’69) and Wade Boggs (’76) all surpassed 50 career WAR and 300 Win Shares. Bruce Hurst, Fred Lynn, Jim Rice, Bob Stanley and John Tudor underscore the list of Boston luminaries chosen in the O’Connell years. The “Original” Red Sox collected four division titles from 1969-1977 and seized American League pennants in 1985 and 1988.

12) Gene Michael                       WS/10K_PA_BFP: 214.47   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 22.58

Gene “Stick” Michael served two terms as the Yankees’ General Manager. His first stint is notable for the selections of Fred McGriff and Bob Tewksbury in the 1981 draft and the signing of Jose Rijo as an amateur free agent in 1980. One decade later he chose Derek Jeter with the sixth pick in the first round of the 1992 draft. “The Captain” amassed 407 Win Shares in his 20-year career. Mike Lowell, a 20th round draftee in ’95, registered 23 career WAR.

13) Charles Finley                     WS/10K_PA_BFP: 212.31   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 23.05

The Athletics owner handled the General Manager responsibilities from October 1967 through the 1980 campaign. Finley procured several proficient outfielders in this dual role including George Hendrick, Chet Lemon and Dwayne Murphy as well as infielder Phil Garner and starting pitcher Mike Morgan. The icing on the cake was Finley’s selection of Rickey Henderson in the fourth round of the 1976 amateur draft. “The Man of Steal” holds the MLB record with 2,295 runs scored and 1,406 stolen bases. Henderson compiled 543 Win Shares and 115 WAR in his 25-year career. The “Original” Athletics achieved four straight playoff berths from 1981-84.

14) John Mullen             WS/10K_PA_BFP: 202.85   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 25.60

John Mullen assembled a talented crew during his stint as the Atlanta GM in the first half of the Eighties. Laying the foundation of the Braves juggernaut in the 1990’s, Mullen drafted Brett Butler (1979), Ron Gant (1983), Tom Glavine (1984) and David Justice (1985). He supplemented the group with second-tier stars including Jeff Blauser, Al Martin and Zane Smith.

15) Tom Grieve               WS/10K_PA_BFP: 199.99   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 25.80

The Rangers recorded four playoff appearances in a seven-year span (1993-99) primarily on the strength of the roster assembled by Tom Grieve. Unlike many of his counterparts, Grieve capitalized on the pipeline of Caribbean-born talent, signing amateur free agents Sammy Sosa (1985), Wilson Alvarez (1986), Juan Gonzalez (1986) and Ivan Rodriguez (1988). The Rangers’ first-round selection in ’86, Kevin J. Brown, yielded the highest WAR value (64) among Grieve’s acquisitions.

16) Gerry Hunsicker       WS/10K_PA_BFP: 196.65   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 26.58

Lance Berkman heads the class of Astros acquired by Gerry Hunsicker during his 9-year stint as Houston GM (Nov. 1995-Oct. 2004). A first-rounder in ’97 and five-time All-Star in 15 seasons, Berkman notched 309 Win Shares and 54 WAR in his career. Hunsicker’s supporting cast comprises Roy Oswalt (1996) and a dynamic duo from the 2004 draft, Hunter Pence and Ben Zobrist.

17) Joe Brown                    WS/10K_PA_BFP: 210.27   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 22.49

Timing is everything. Joe Brown answered the call, returning to Pittsburgh as the interim GM one month prior to selecting Barry Bonds in the 1985 amateur draft. He acquired a multitude of gifted ballplayers throughout his primary term in the Pirates front office (1956-1976). Bonds amassed incredible numbers during his 22-year career including 694 Win Shares and 156 WAR. Four Bucs registered at least 30 WAR and 300 Win Shares: Willie “Pops” Stargell, Dave “Cobra” Parker, Willie Randolph and Al Oliver. Brown’s All-Star roster also consists of Bob Bailey, John Candelaria (37 WAR), Richie Hebner, Don Money, Manny Sanguillen, Kent Tekulve, Bob Veale and Richie Zisk. The “Original” Bucs tallied three pennants in the Seventies.

T18) Gord Ash                    WS/10K_PA_BFP: 211.54   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 21.82

Gord Ash displayed shrewd drafting skills in his seven seasons as the Toronto GM. Ash selected Roy Halladay (64 WAR) in 1995. Two years later he nailed the trifecta with Orlando Hudson, Vernon Wells and Michael Young. The “Original” Blue Jays won the American League Eastern division in three successive campaigns (2001-03) and added another title in 2005.

T18) Mike Port                   WS/10K_PA_BFP: 197.50   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 25.07

Mike Port laid the groundwork for the Angels’ success in the 1990’s and early 2000’s. Jim Edmonds earned 319 Win Shares and 67 WAR with his batting skills and defensive wizardry in center field. Tim “Kingfish” Salmon and Garret Anderson augmented the Halos’ firepower while 5-time All Star lefthander Chuck Finley anchored the pitching staff. Port also chose Jon Lester in the second round of the 2002 draft as the interim GM for the Red Sox. The “Original” Angels netted two division titles and two wild-card berths from 1995-2005.

20) Lou Gorman               WS/10K_PA_BFP: 201.48   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 23.81

Lou Gorman selected Jeff Bagwell and Mo Vaughn in the June 1989 Amateur Draft. “Bagpipes” amassed 379 Win Shares and 73 WAR in his 15-year big league career while the “Hit Dog” tallied 21 WAR. Curt Schilling edges Bagwell with a 74 WAR. Brady Anderson, Bud Black, Dave Henderson, Aaron Sele and John Valentin supplement the register of Gorman draftees with at least 20 career WAR. The “Original” Red Sox achieved three pennants and two division titles in the 1990’s.

21) Calvin Griffith                   WS/10K_PA_BFP: 204.71   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 22.60

The owner of the Senators/Twins franchise effectively held the title of General Manager through July, 1984. He acquired future Hall of Famers via amateur free agency (Rod Carew, Harmon Killebrew) and through the First-Year Player Draft (Bert Blyleven, Kirby Puckett). Carew tops the list with 384 career Win Shares while Blyleven leads the way with 85 career WAR. Reggie Smith and Graig Nettles eclipsed 300 Win Shares and 50 WAR in their careers. Other players signed by Griffith with at least 200 career Win Shares and/or 20 career WAR include Bob Allison, Jay Bell, Rick Dempsey, Gary Gaetti, Kent Hrbek, Jim Kaat, Tony Oliva, Camilo Pascual, Pete Runnels and Frank Viola. The “Original” Twins secured five pennants in the Sixties.

22) Lee MacPhail                    WS/10K_PA_BFP: 197.04   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 24.21

Lee MacPhail contributed greatly to the Orioles’ success in the Seventies. Baltimore’s top executive from 1959-1965 inked Hall of Fame right-hander Jim Palmer (308 career Win Shares, 66 WAR) to his first professional baseball contract in 1963. O’s contributors surpassing the 20 career WAR mark and signed by MacPhail include Mark Belanger, Dean Chance, Davey Johnson, Dave McNally and Boog Powell. MacPhail recorded seven full seasons at the head of the Yankees’ front office (1967-73) and drafted Ron Guidry and Thurman Munson during his stint in New York. The “Original” Orioles paced the American League in OWS from 1970-73 and delivered back-to-back pennants in 1972-73.

23) Dallas Green                     WS/10K_PA_BFP: 193.06   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 25.65

Dallas Green guided the Cubs’ front office for six seasons in the mid-Eighties. He came up aces with the selections of Greg Maddux and Jamie Moyer in the 1984 Amateur Draft then replicated the feat in the subsequent draft when he chose Mark Grace and Rafael Palmeiro. Maddux and Palmeiro exceeded 400 Win Shares in their careers. The foursome boosted the “Original” Cubs to eight playoff berths in an 11-year stretch (1988-1998) capped by the 1989 National League pennant.

24) Frank Lane                        WS/10K_PA_BFP: 207.76   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 21.75

“Trader” Frank Lane aka “Frantic Frank”, “Trade Lane” and “The Wheeler Dealer” ascended to the role of General Manager with the Chicago White Sox in 1948. Lane spent seven season with the Pale Hose then drifted through short stints as the chief executive for the Cardinals (1956-57), Indians (1958-60), Athletics (1961) and Brewers (1971-72). Lane’s top acquisitions consisted of Luis Aparicio, Earl Battey, Norm Cash (312 career Win Shares, 51 WAR), Jim Landis, “Sudden” Sam McDowell Johnny Romano and Sonny Siebert.

25) Paul Richards                   WS/10K_PA_BFP: 216.25   WAR/10K_PA_BFP: 20.25 

Joe L. Morgan caps the list of ballplayers acquired by Paul Richards during his front office tenure in Baltimore (1955-58), Houston (1962-65) and Atlanta (1967-1972). Morgan registered 507 Win Shares and 83 WAR in his 22-year career. Richards’ star-studded squad is augmented by Dusty Baker, Larry Dierker, Ron Hansen, Milt Pappas, Mickey Rivers, Brooks Robinson, Rusty Staub, Bob Watson and Don Wilson. The “Original” Astros paced the Senior Circuit in OWAR six times from 1972-1980 and made four playoff appearances in the same timeframe. 

Executives Ranked By Win Shares per 10,000 PA+BFP

  • At least 75,000 PA+BFP to qualify
  • Player-Seasons, Executives since 1950
Executive PA BFP PA+BFP Total WS Total WAR WS/10K

PA+BFP

WAR/10K

PA+BFP

Bill Wood 62024 31573 93597 2260.16 298.36 241.48 31.88
Chub Feeney 220568 119521 340089 7945.59 816.14 233.63 24.00
Dick Wagner 71262 52260 123522 2796.86 298.33 226.43 24.15
Bobby Cox 45425 34282 79707 1800.82 207.49 225.93 26.03
Hank Peters 120922 100803 221725 4814.81 583.73 217.15 26.33
Paul Richards 124269 75228 199497 4314.2 404 216.25 20.25
Gabe Paul 197814 151349 349163 7499.43 816.84 214.78 23.39
Gene Michael 49810 38866 88676 1901.87 200.2 214.47 22.58
Dick O’Connell 139600 102594 242194 5168.59 556.7 213.41 22.99
Walt Jocketty 69283 56442 125725 2679.4 350.57 213.12 27.88
Jack McKeon 87837 63453 151290 3223.81 348.99 213.09 23.07
Charles Finley 71763 59313 131076 2782.82 302.14 212.31 23.05
Gord Ash 60471 32582 93053 1968.47 203.05 211.54 21.82
Larry Himes 36134 49604 85738 1809.37 240.72 211.03 28.08
Joe Brown 211668 182629 394297 8291.07 886.59 210.27 22.49
Harding Peterson 63408 60236 123644 2572.68 300.22 208.07 24.28
Frank Lane 85469 59313 144782 3007.96 314.89 207.76 21.75
Cedric Tallis 80876 60004 140880 2924.22 303.36 207.57 21.53
Sandy Alderson 128855 75588 204443 4239.95 428.73 207.39 20.97
Harry Dalton 196865 120813 317678 6560.62 617.26 206.52 19.43
Spec Richardson 67578 45758 113336 2327.85 194.26 205.39 17.14
Calvin Griffith 223435 190092 413527 8465.15 934.7 204.71 22.60
Jim Fanning 57395 48616 106011 2167.29 224.69 204.44 21.19
Dan Duquette 67338 50198 117536 2400.99 250.6 204.28 21.32
John Quinn 188445 190902 379347 7722.99 845.14 203.59 22.28
John Mullen 45172 53973 99145 2011.14 253.81 202.85 25.60
Ed Short 42240 39358 81598 1653.99 161.05 202.70 19.74
Lou Gorman 93588 81805 175393 3533.86 417.66 201.48 23.81
Frank Cashen 118680 137303 255983 5119.32 522.3 199.99 20.40
Tom Grieve 83391 84437 167828 3356.31 432.98 199.99 25.80
Joe McDonald 82022 72601 154623 3071.96 271.44 198.67 17.55
Buzzie Bavasi 238579 216838 455417 9022.18 907.34 198.11 19.92
Mike Port 61259 51025 102830 2217.58 281.5 197.50 25.07
Lee MacPhail 71862 112284 184146 3628.48 445.73 197.04 24.21
Gerry Hunsicker 32262 45211 77473 1523.52 205.89 196.65 26.58
Al Rosen 48377 41220 89597 1754.93 167.1 195.87 18.65
Pat Gillick 175095 193057 368152 7201.33 850.41 195.61 23.10
Woody Woodward 85621 101102 186723 3640.45 407.09 194.97 21.80
George Weiss 165406 152824 318230 6159.37 589.25 193.55 18.52
Dallas Green 65336 61025 126361 2439.52 324.09 193.06 25.65
John McHale 98837 79195 178032 3436.22 271.49 193.01 15.25
Bob Howsam 99630 136006 253632 4527.49 328.47 192.14 13.94
Bing Devine 126197 126509 252706 4854.34 492.08 192.09 19.47
Terry Ryan 56357 51825 108182 2077.21 170.36 192.01 15.75
Dave Dombrowski 152284 132562 284846 5463.4 543.67 191.80 19.09
Joe Garagiola 68923 69175 138098 2640.99 268.99 191.24 19.48
Murray Cook 37585 70038 107623 2058.18 273.05 191.24 25.37
Fred Claire 98971 98320 197291 3771.64 427.45 191.17 21.67
Jim Bowden 50838 47274 98112 1871.31 196.75 190.73 20.05
Joe Burke 53227 72651 125878 2387.27 293.47 189.65 23.31
Bob Quinn, Sr. 46553 38068 84621 1604.31 120.41 189.59 14.23
Ron Schueler 47917 54165 102082 1931.03 187.67 189.16 18.38
Paul Owens 101696 92851 194547 3670.31 309.17 188.66 15.89
Ed Wade 41737 52232 93969 1766.38 225.79 187.97 24.03
Dan O’Brien 54240 91815 155509 2742.65 293.13 187.78 20.07
Herk Robinson 68410 54026 122436 2291.35 230.83 187.15 18.85
Jim Campbell 97600 107048 204648 3826.03 358.53 186.96 17.52
Brian Cashman 40686 54541 95227 1777.03 209.88 186.61 22.04
Al Campanis 129690 148679 278369 5187.3 535.92 186.35 19.25
Doug Melvin 66641 71661 138302 2562.59 309.01 185.29 22.34
Hank Greenberg 58963 88699 147662 2732.14 286.87 185.03 19.43
John Hart 61266 79287 140553 2593.63 316.84 184.53 22.54
Branch Rickey 52760 35247 88007 1622.72 81.07 184.39 9.21
Haywood Sullivan 30308 50362 80670 1484.02 218.23 183.96 27.05
Bill DeWitt 62309 35295 79608 1786.08 209.49 182.99 21.46
Dal Maxvill 52902 54341 107243 1939.52 165.31 180.85 15.41
John Schuerholz 147334 186022 333356 6020.83 693.92 180.61 20.82
Andy MacPhail 81063 94219 175282 3139.36 340.23 179.10 19.41
Lee Thomas 39619 48132 87751 1559.25 168.82 177.69 19.24
Fred Haney 51347 49702 101049 1792.18 102.77 177.36 10.17
Billy Beane 41091 66175 107266 1902.4 226.24 177.35 21.09
Dan O’Dowd 40723 34806 75529 1333.26 136.32 176.52 18.05
Bob Gebhard 59053 57388 116441 2038.1 242.45 175.03 20.82
Cam Bonifay 39632 51291 90923 1571.97 163.42 172.89 17.97
Bill Lajoie 32234 49085 81319 1401.38 158.51 172.33 19.49
Chuck LaMar 48681 53975 102656 1752.91 148.78 170.76 14.49
Roland Hemond 61859 121248 183107 3080.82 323.31 168.25 17.66
Horace Stoneham 33052 58721 91773 1538.85 167.63 167.68 18.27
John Holland 77120 165389 242509 4048.67 403.99 166.95 16.66
Joe Cronin 57303 72256 129559 2154.36 183.6 166.28 14.17
Bill Bavasi 27139 62581 89720 1488.47 165.14 165.90 18.41
Eddie Robinson 35045 87722 122767 2016.97 222.61 164.29 18.13
Roy Hamey 42569 72089 114658 1845.06 166.87 160.92 14.55
Kevin Towers 29817 55346 85163 1303.85 132.76 153.10 15.59
Ed Lynch 17623 59661 77284 1160.5 158.78 150.16 20.55
Brian Sabean 24371 75868 100239 1479.84 163.77 147.63 16.34

 

Executives Ranked By Win Shares per 10,000 PA+BFP

  • Less than 75,000 PA+BFP
  • Player-Seasons, Executives since 1950
Executive PA BFP PA+BFP Total WS Total WAR WS/10K

PA+BFP

WAR/10K

PA+BFP

Walter Briggs 12637 119 12756 362.75 33.6 284.38 26.34
Warren Giles 5707 1965 7672 204.8 29.52 266.94 38.48
Bucky Harris 158 2906 3064 81.06 14.67 264.56 47.88
Ed Lopat 22957 17604 40561 1051.58 176.28 259.26 43.46
Ruben Amaro, Jr. 523 216 739 19.13 2.2 258.86 29.77
John Claiborne 8184 4255 12439 320.65 36.62 257.78 29.44
Paul DePodesta 5303 3884 9187 231.39 23.88 251.87 25.99
Rick Ferrell 35494 18038 53532 1298.91 128.14 242.64 23.94
Dean Taylor 14481 10230 24711 597 58.39 241.59 23.63
Herman Franks 11970 39 12009 287.92 16.63 239.75 13.85
Fresco Thompson 38465 14767 53232 1264.47 136.62 237.54 25.67
Billy Martin 24249 9428 33677 795.21 94.89 236.13 28.18
Clyde King 21382 8307 29689 691.2 71.61 232.81 24.12
Charlie Gehringer 26647 13765 40412 940.78 95 232.80 23.51
C.Comiskey,J.Rigney 18406 14032 32438 753.13 87.13 232.18 26.86
Jim Wilson 19311 12217 31528 727.66 89.09 230.80 28.26
Bill Veeck 6757 1101 7858 180.03 5.06 229.10 6.44
Ken Harrelson 2852 2091 4943 112.8 8.47 228.20 17.14
Parke Carroll 21041 11818 32859 748.15 81.48 227.68 24.80
Andrew Friedman 7105 8871 15976 357.84 65.35 223.99 40.91
Bill Lucas 24898 9783 34681 767.01 46.13 221.16 13.30
Jim Beattie 29863 20747 50610 1094.17 150.45 216.20 29.73
Salty Saltwell 230 3243 3473 74.52 1.59 214.57 4.58
Wayne Krivsky 8282 1706 9988 214.3 15.51 214.56 15.53
Steve Phillips 26058 18344 44402 944.68 113.74 212.76 25.62
Stuart Holcomb 20429 17808 38237 806.19 64.27 210.84 16.81
Dick Balderson 22472 20413 42885 904.03 120.72 210.80 28.15
Joe Klein 39324 32243 71567 1504.1 132.31 210.17 18.49
Bill Bergesch 38595 26957 65552 1376.59 167.14 210.00 25.50
Bob Kennedy 23316 9464 32780 684.9 48.11 208.94 14.68
Charlie Fox 22538 25346 47884 988.9 165.18 206.52 34.50
Jim Baumer 21720 19780 41500 854.48 84.8 205.90 20.43
Ralph Houk 12060 12611 24671 506.31 48.71 205.22 19.74
Phil Seghi 47755 16826 64581 1321.68 96.42 204.65 14.93
Peter Bavasi 31122 21691 52813 1079.28 94.89 204.36 17.97
Bob Short 26565 13842 40407 825.49 43.46 204.29 10.76
Theo Epstein 20146 25938 46084 939.28 123.66 203.82 26.83
Dan Evans 18432 18988 37420 757.09 92.22 202.32 24.64
Eddie Chiles 667 0 667 13.46 0.09 201.80 1.35
Alvin Dark 12766 7551 20317 409.97 24.25 201.79 11.94
Dick Meyer 6311 12378 18689 375.09 26.98 200.70 14.44
Mike Higgins 21767 16420 38187 764.97 59.66 200.32 15.62
Jack Zduriencik 4369 3460 7829 155.67 21.24 198.84 27.13
Jed Hoyer 628 515 1143 22.65 0.37 198.16 3.24
Tal Smith 32811 31538 64349 1267.06 109.35 196.90 16.99
Marvin Milkes 24850 22410 47260 924.31 90.61 195.58 19.17
Bill Stoneman 33783 35865 69648 1360.38 153.17 195.32 21.99
Stan Musial 10880 15674 26554 516.28 76.04 194.43 28.64
Al Harazin 7117 7005 14122 274.12 12.96 194.11 9.18
Jim Duquette 3854 1947 5801 111.18 6.44 191.66 11.10
William Jr. Walsingham 23762 21433 45195 864.51 79.69 191.28 17.63
Mike Rizzo 1711 4473 6184 117.6 16.38 190.17 26.49
Hal Keller 12354 10812 23166 430.58 38.72 185.87 16.71
Dave Littlefield 12327 16710 29037 536.85 54.49 184.88 18.77
Syd Thrift 21872 34724 56596 1043.88 117.96 184.44 20.84
Tom Haller 26384 41456 67840 1248.6 143.64 184.05 21.17
Allard Baird 15387 12895 28282 519.08 56.99 183.54 20.15
Whitey Herzog 9380 6962 16342 299.48 32.09 183.26 19.64
Neal Huntington 3065 2317 5382 98.61 13.59 183.22 25.25
G. Paul T. Smith 15696 6505 22201 403.27 19.11 181.64 8.61
Kevin Malone 28086 28130 56216 1020.58 105.24 181.55 18.72
Bob Fontaine, Sr. 19796 18234 38030 688.66 70.16 181.08 18.45
Pat Friday 23318 44441 67759 1220.35 106.75 180.10 15.75
J.Beattie,M.Flanagan 7322 7471 14793 265.16 10.68 179.25 7.22
Johnny Murphy 12855 5845 18700 332.36 17.08 177.73 9.13
J. O’Toole,H. Peterson 7616 7316 14932 263 17.89 176.13 11.98
Dan Topping, Jr. 5432 3200 8632 150.49 6.69 174.34 7.75
Ted Simmons 21214 15589 36803 637.61 54.17 173.25 14.72
Sal Bando 25615 24412 50027 860.26 81.79 171.96 16.35
Frank Wren 11881 19106 30987 521.2 77.79 168.20 25.10
Muddy Ruel 9005 17165 26170 439.99 30.37 168.13 11.60
Wid Mathews 25406 45482 70888 1178.18 106.05 166.20 14.96
Dayton Moore 6449 10883 17332 287.23 31.95 165.72 18.43
Randy Smith 33842 33360 67202 1105.27 71.17 164.47 10.59
Ed Doherty 9042 550 9592 157.02 -5.56 163.70 -5.80
Jim Hendry 17532 16224 33756 552.13 40.97 163.56 12.14
Bob Watson 22870 43566 66436 1086.05 137.4 163.47 20.68
John Alevizos 3504 3731 7235 117.96 12.05 163.04 16.66
Joe McIlvaine 32479 37981 70460 1144.62 100.65 162.45 14.28
Arnold Johnson 7028 7429 14457 233.99 17.1 161.85 11.83
Art Ehlers 7131 15698 22829 368.7 41.47 161.51 18.17
Ken Williams 25351 29831 55182 882.77 67.98 159.97 12.32
Billy Evans 14015 32815 46830 741.67 105.02 158.37 22.43
George Selkirk 24728 19874 44602 706.16 14.54 158.32 3.26
D. O’Brien,E. Robinson 6285 18391 24676 388.39 24 157.40 9.73
Dick Walsh 14032 27256 41288 637.76 52.95 154.47 12.82
J.P. Ricciardi 17178 31097 48275 745.03 84.95 154.33 17.60
Bob Scheffing 14091 18033 32124 485.57 20.24 151.15 6.30
Larry Beinfest 16122 22901 39023 589.06 54.99 150.95 14.09
Jon Daniels 8606 17009 25615 384.67 37.7 150.17 14.72
Omar Minaya 15364 29416 44780 670.74 54.53 149.79 12.18
Ned Colletti 2275 19394 21669 318.89 68.03 147.16 31.40
Tim Purpura 5217 4117 9334 136.88 5.41 146.65 5.80
Tony Reagins 1961 7694 9655 140.97 21.33 146.01 22.09
Mike Flanagan 2945 5358 8303 120.33 8.15 144.92 9.82
Larry Doughty 15571 26588 42159 609.44 35.4 144.56 8.40
Josh Byrnes 4229 18468 22697 326.78 47.26 143.97 20.82
Howard Fox 1642 3187 4829 68.36 5.5 141.56 11.39
Dan O’Brien, Jr. 7493 16218 23711 335.49 45.12 141.49 19.03
Robert Jr. Carpenter 5818 21829 27647 383.34 8.1 138.66 2.93
Bill Giles 4181 44190 48371 668.39 56.91 138.18 11.77
Chris Antonetti 0 706 706 9.51 1.14 134.70 16.15
John Mozeliak 3032 8653 11685 155.42 26.02 133.01 22.27
Mark Shapiro 10893 28554 39447 507.91 38.01 128.76 9.64
Jim Frey 6905 21034 27939 347.54 25.07 124.39 8.97
Tom Lasorda 14 0 14 0.17 -0.06 121.43 -42.86
Bill Smith 3252 2008 5260 63.44 0.68 120.61 1.29
Dave Wallace 1947 6912 8859 106.84 14.03 120.60 15.84
Jerry Walker 1328 7497 8825 92.23 5.56 104.51 6.30
Alex Anthopoulos 826 258 1084 7.64 -3.84 70.48 -35.42
Mike Hill 369 3433 3802 23.37 0.25 61.47 0.66
Mickey Cochrane 74 0 74 0.12 -0.44 16.22 -59.46
Jerry Dipoto 0 149 149 0 -0.58 0.00 -38.93

 

Executives – Overall Rankings

 

by WS>75000 PA+BFP by WAR>75000 PA+BFP Avg Rank
1 Bill Wood 1 Bill Wood 1 1
4 Bobby Cox 7 Bobby Cox 5.5 2
5 Hank Peters 6 Hank Peters 5.5 2
10 Walt Jocketty 3 Walt Jocketty 6.5 4
14 Larry Himes 2 Larry Himes 8 5
3 Dick Wagner 15 Dick Wagner 9 6
2 Chub Feeney 17 Chub Feeney 9.5 7
7 Gabe Paul 19 Gabe Paul 13 8
16 Harding Peterson 13 Harding Peterson 14.5 9
9 Dick O’Connell 24 Dick O’Connell 16.5 10
11 Jack McKeon 22 Jack McKeon 16.5 10
8 Gene Michael 26 Gene Michael 17 12
12 Charles Finley 23 Charles Finley 17.5 13
26 John Mullen 10 John Mullen 18 14
30 Tom Grieve 8 Tom Grieve 19 15
35 Gerry Hunsicker 5 Gerry Hunsicker 20 16
15 Joe Brown 28 Joe Brown 21.5 17
13 Gord Ash 32 Gord Ash 22.5 18
33 Mike Port 12 Mike Port 22.5 18
28 Lou Gorman 18 Lou Gorman 23 20
22 Calvin Griffith 25 Calvin Griffith 23.5 21
34 Lee MacPhail 14 Lee MacPhail 24 22
40 Dallas Green 9 Dallas Green 24.5 23
17 Frank Lane 34 Frank Lane 25.5 24
6 Paul Richards 46 Paul Richards 26 25
18 Cedric Tallis 36 Cedric Tallis 27 26
25 John Quinn 30 John Quinn 27.5 27
46 Murray Cook 11 Murray Cook 28.5 28
37 Pat Gillick 21 Pat Gillick 29 29
19 Sandy Alderson 41 Sandy Alderson 30 30
23 Jim Fanning 39 Jim Fanning 31 31
24 Dan Duquette 38 Dan Duquette 31 31
62 Haywood Sullivan 4 Haywood Sullivan 33 33
49 Joe Burke 20 Joe Burke 34.5 34
53 Ed Wade 16 Ed Wade 34.5 34
38 Woody Woodward 33 Woody Woodward 35.5 36
20 Harry Dalton 54 Harry Dalton 37 37
29 Frank Cashen 45 Frank Cashen 37 37
27 Ed Short 49 Ed Short 38 39
32 Buzzie Bavasi 48 Buzzie Bavasi 40 40
47 Fred Claire 35 Fred Claire 41 41
56 Brian Cashman 31 Brian Cashman 43.5 42
58 Doug Melvin 29 Doug Melvin 43.5 42
60 John Hart 27 John Hart 43.5 42
21 Spec Richardson 72 Spec Richardson 46.5 45
42 Bing Devine 53 Bing Devine 47.5 46
48 Jim Bowden 47 Jim Bowden 47.5 46
36 Al Rosen 61 Al Rosen 48.5 48
45 Joe Garagiola 52 Joe Garagiola 48.5 48
63 Bill DeWitt 37 Bill DeWitt 50 50
31 Joe McDonald 70 Joe McDonald 50.5 51
39 George Weiss 62 George Weiss 50.5 51
44 Dave Dombrowski 59 Dave Dombrowski 51.5 53
65 John Schuerholz 43 John Schuerholz 54 54
69 Billy Beane 40 Billy Beane 54.5 55
54 Herk Robinson 60 Herk Robinson 57 56
57 Al Campanis 57 Al Campanis 57 56
59 Hank Greenberg 55 Hank Greenberg 57 56
72 Bob Gebhard 42 Bob Gebhard 57 56
51 Ron Schueler 64 Ron Schueler 57.5 60
43 Terry Ryan 76 Terry Ryan 59.5 61
41 John McHale 79 John McHale 60 62
71 Dan O’Brien 50 Dan O’Brien 60.5 63
66 Andy MacPhail 56 Andy MacPhail 61 64
67 Lee Thomas 58 Lee Thomas 62.5 65
55 Jim Campbell 71 Jim Campbell 63 66
75 Bill Lajoie 51 Bill Lajoie 63 66
52 Paul Owens 75 Paul Owens 63.5 68
85 Ed Lynch 44 Ed Lynch 64.5 69
50 Bob Quinn, Sr. 82 Bob Quinn, Sr. 66 70
70 Dan O’Dowd 67 Dan O’Dowd 68.5 71
73 Cam Bonifay 68 Cam Bonifay 70.5 72
64 Dal Maxvill 78 Dal Maxvill 71 73
78 Horace Stoneham 65 Horace Stoneham 71.5 74
81 Bill Bavasi 63 Bill Bavasi 72 75
77 Roland Hemond 69 Roland Hemond 73 76
61 Branch Rickey 86 Branch Rickey 73.5 77
82 Eddie Robinson 66 Eddie Robinson 74 78
79 John Holland 73 John Holland 76 79
68 Fred Haney 85 Fred Haney 76.5 80
76 Chuck LaMar 81 Chuck LaMar 78.5 81
74 Bob Howsam 84 Bob Howsam 79 82
86 Brian Sabean 74 Brian Sabean 80 83
84 Kevin Towers 77 Kevin Towers 80.5 84
80 Joe Cronin 83 Joe Cronin 81.5 85
83 Roy Hamey 80 Roy Hamey 81.5 85
by WS<75000 PA+BFP by WAR<75000 PA+BFP Avg Rank
3 Bucky Harris 1 Bucky Harris 2 1
4 Ed Lopat 2 Ed Lopat 3 2
2 Warren Giles 4 Warren Giles 3 2
5 Ruben Amaro, Jr. 7 Ruben Amaro, Jr. 6 4
6 John Claiborne 9 John Claiborne 7.5 5
1 Walter Briggs 18 Walter Briggs 9.5 6
20 Andrew Friedman 3 Andrew Friedman 11.5 7
12 Billy Martin 12 Billy Martin 12 8
7 Paul DePodesta 19 Paul DePodesta 13 9
16 Jim Wilson 11 Jim Wilson 13.5 10
15 C.Comiskey J.Rigney 15 C.Comiskey J.Rigney 15 11
22 Jim Beattie 8 Jim Beattie 15 11
11 Fresco Thompson 20 Fresco Thompson 15.5 13
31 Charlie Fox 5 Charlie Fox 18 14
8 Rick Ferrell 28 Rick Ferrell 18 14
9 Dean Taylor 29 Dean Taylor 19 16
13 Clyde King 27 Clyde King 20 17
27 Dick Balderson 13 Dick Balderson 20 17
14 Charlie Gehringer 30 Charlie Gehringer 22 19
19 Parke Carroll 25 Parke Carroll 22 19
25 Steve Phillips 21 Steve Phillips 23 21
29 Bill Bergesch 22 Bill Bergesch 25.5 22
37 Theo Epstein 16 Theo Epstein 26.5 23
43 Jack Zduriencik 14 Jack Zduriencik 28.5 24
48 Stan Musial 10 Stan Musial 29 25
38 Dan Evans 26 Dan Evans 32 26
52 Mike Rizzo 17 Mike Rizzo 34.5 27
32 Jim Baumer 39 Jim Baumer 35.5 28
18 Ken Harrelson 54 Ken Harrelson 36 29
33 Ralph Houk 41 Ralph Houk 37 30
28 Joe Klein 47 Joe Klein 37.5 31
47 Bill Stoneman 34 Bill Stoneman 40.5 32
59 Neal Huntington 23 Neal Huntington 41 33
26 Stuart Holcomb 56 Stuart Holcomb 41 33
10 Herman Franks 73 Herman Franks 41.5 35
35 Peter Bavasi 51 Peter Bavasi 43 36
24 Wayne Krivsky 64 Wayne Krivsky 44 37
46 Marvin Milkes 43 Marvin Milkes 44.5 38
55 Syd Thrift 36 Syd Thrift 45.5 39
56 Tom Haller 35 Tom Haller 45.5 39
70 Frank Wren 24 Frank Wren 47 41
21 Bill Lucas 74 Bill Lucas 47.5 42
57 Allard Baird 40 Allard Baird 48.5 43
92 Ned Colletti 6 Ned Colletti 49 44
30 Bob Kennedy 69 Bob Kennedy 49.5 45
54 Dave Littlefield 45 Dave Littlefield 49.5 45
34 Phil Seghi 66 Phil Seghi 50 47
45 Tal Smith 55 Tal Smith 50 47
58 Whitey Herzog 42 Whitey Herzog 50 47
51 William Jr. Walsingham 52 William Jr. Walsingham 51.5 50
42 Mike Higgins 63 Mike Higgins 52.5 51
61 Kevin Malone 46 Kevin Malone 53.5 52
62 Bob Fontaine, Sr. 48 Bob Fontaine, Sr. 55 53
53 Hal Keller 57 Hal Keller 55 53
41 Dick Meyer 70 Dick Meyer 55.5 55
83 Billy Evans 31 Billy Evans 57 56
17 Bill Veeck 98 Bill Veeck 57.5 57
77 Bob Watson 38 Bob Watson 57.5 57
40 Alvin Dark 80 Alvin Dark 60 59
36 Bob Short 86 Bob Short 61 60
73 Dayton Moore 49 Dayton Moore 61 60
63 Pat Friday 62 Pat Friday 62.5 62
23 Salty Saltwell 102 Salty Saltwell 62.5 62
94 Tony Reagins 33 Tony Reagins 63.5 64
69 Sal Bando 59 Sal Bando 64 65
81 Art Ehlers 50 Art Ehlers 65.5 66
97 Josh Byrnes 37 Josh Byrnes 67 67
50 Jim Duquette 85 Jim Duquette 67.5 68
103 John Mozeliak 32 John Mozeliak 67.5 68
68 Ted Simmons 67 Ted Simmons 67.5 68
78 John Alevizos 58 John Alevizos 68 71
72 Wid Mathews 65 Wid Mathews 68.5 72
49 Al Harazin 91 Al Harazin 70 73
87 J.P. Ricciardi 53 J.P. Ricciardi 70 73
99 Dan O’Brien, Jr. 44 Dan O’Brien, Jr. 71.5 75
39 Eddie Chiles 106 Eddie Chiles 72.5 76
66 J. O’Toole H. Peterson 79 J. O’Toole H. Peterson 72.5 76
44 Jed Hoyer 104 Jed Hoyer 74 78
79 Joe McIlvaine 71 Joe McIlvaine 75 79
60 G. Paul T. Smith 94 G. Paul T. Smith 77 80
76 Jim Hendry 78 Jim Hendry 77 80
71 Muddy Ruel 83 Muddy Ruel 77 80
65 Johnny Murphy 92 Johnny Murphy 78.5 83
90 Jon Daniels 68 Jon Daniels 79 84
82 Ken Williams 76 Ken Williams 79 84
80 Arnold Johnson 81 Arnold Johnson 80.5 86
86 Dick Walsh 75 Dick Walsh 80.5 86
64 J.Beattie M.Flanagan 97 J.Beattie M.Flanagan 80.5 86
89 Larry Beinfest 72 Larry Beinfest 80.5 86
74 Randy Smith 87 Randy Smith 80.5 86
102 Chris Antonetti 60 Chris Antonetti 81 91
67 Dan Topping, Jr. 96 Dan Topping, Jr. 81.5 92
91 Omar Minaya 77 Omar Minaya 84 93
108 Dave Wallace 61 Dave Wallace 84.5 94
85 D. O’Brien E. Robinson 89 D. O’Brien E. Robinson 87 95
98 Howard Fox 84 Howard Fox 91 96
101 Bill Giles 82 Bill Giles 91.5 97
95 Mike Flanagan 88 Mike Flanagan 91.5 97
75 Ed Doherty 109 Ed Doherty 92 99
88 Bob Scheffing 99 Bob Scheffing 93.5 100
84 George Selkirk 103 George Selkirk 93.5 100
96 Larry Doughty 95 Larry Doughty 95.5 102
104 Mark Shapiro 90 Mark Shapiro 97 103
93 Tim Purpura 101 Tim Purpura 97 103
105 Jim Frey 93 Jim Frey 99 105
100 Robert Jr. Carpenter 105 Robert Jr. Carpenter 102.5 106
109 Jerry Walker 100 Jerry Walker 104.5 107
107 Bill Smith 107 Bill Smith 107 108
106 Tom Lasorda 112 Tom Lasorda 109 109
111 Mike Hill 108 Mike Hill 109.5 110
110 Alex Anthopoulos 110 Alex Anthopoulos 110 111
113 Jerry Dipoto 111 Jerry Dipoto 112 112
112 Mickey Cochrane 113 Mickey Cochrane 112.5 113

 

References and Resources

Baseball America – Executive Database

Baseball-Reference

Google Newspaper Archives

James, Bill. The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract. New York, NY.: The Free Press, 2001. Print.

James, Bill, with Jim Henzler. Win Shares. Morton Grove, Ill.: STATS, 2002. Print.

Retrosheet – Transactions Database

Seamheads – Baseball Gauge

Sean Lahman Baseball Archive

 

Corrections

The opening paragraph was inadvertently omitted from the original post. I revised the article on 9/13/2016 to include this paragraph.

 

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